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Macrauchenia ("long llama", based on the now superseded Latin term for llamas, Auchenia, from Greek terms which literally mean "big neck") was a long-necked and long-limbed, three-toed South American ungulate mammal, typifying the order Litopterna. The oldest fossils date back to around 7 million years ago, and Macrauchenia patagonica disappears from the fossil record during the late Pleistocene, around 20,000 years ago. Macrauchenia patagonica was the best known member of the family Macraucheniidae, and is known only from fossil finds in South America, primarily from the Lujan Formation in Argentina. The original specimen was discovered by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle. In life, Macrauchenia resembled a humpless camel with a short trunk, though it is not closely related to either camels or proboscideans. Macrauchenia appeared in the fossil record some 7 million years ago in South America (in the Miocene epoch). It is likely that Macrauchenia arose from either Theosodon or Promacrauchenia. Notoungulata and Litopterna were two ancient orders of ungulates which only occurred in South America. Many of these species became extinct through competition with invading North American ungulates during the Great American Interchange, after the establishment of the Central American land bridge. A few survivors of this invasion were the litopterns Macrauchenia and Xenorhinotherium and the large notungulates Toxodon and Mixotoxodon. These last original South American hoofed animals died out eventually at the time of the arrival of humans at the end of the Pleistocene, along with numerous other large animals on the American continent (such as American elephants, horses, camels, saber-toothed cats and ground sloths). As this genus was the last of the litopterns, its extinction ended that line of mammals.